Ziyan Ma, Sepideh Mohammadi Kouhini, Christoph Kottke, Ronald Freund, Volker Jungnickel, Marcel Müller, Daniel Behnke, “LiFi Positioning and Optimization in an Indoor Factory Environment,” 48th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society (IECON),  2022

Abstract: Positioning technology is considered an essential tool for future Internet of Things (IoT) applications, especially for the smart factory. Compared to traditional wireless network positioning systems, LiFi localization technology has a greater potential to provide the sub-meter level accuracy required for smart manufacturing applications, due to its low multi-path and flat channel characteristics. In this paper, we evaluate a LiFi positioning system, based on the ITU-T G.9991 standard for optical wireless communication, for the first time in a factory environment. Our results show a 3-D positioning error of about 5 cm and a further improvement down to about 3 cm by introducing correction factor. The correction factor
is based on an initial calibration of the system, to address the observed dependency of the ranging error vs. the angle between transmitter and receiver. The investigated approach demonstrates the possibility of further development of LiFi systems for the positioning of products and navigation vehicles in future smart factories.